efforts in other states
Only California has adopted mandated nurse staffing ratios
California passed mandatory nurse staffing ratios in 1999 and put them
in place in 2004, after intense lobbying from the California Nurses
Association. The mandated staffing ratios dictated how many patients each nurse
could care for on all the various patient units throughout hospitals.
The consequences of the mandated ratios include: frustrations
among nurses over a loss of autonomy; difficulty juggling the logistics of
dealing with rigid ratios and other labor laws; the closing of some
patient-care units; and diversion of emergency department patients.
In addition, the government-mandated nurse
staffing ratio has increased health care costs across the continuum of care. A 2009 study found that after the implementation of California’s
nurse-to-staff ratios, “wage growth for RNs far outstripped wage growth in
other states without such legislation.” In 2017, California RNs earned an
average of $102,700 per year. RNs at MHA member hospitals average an annual
salary of $85,238, well above the national average RN salary of $73,549.
Finally, mandated nurse ratios in California have not demonstrated an
increase in quality and safety.
Massachusetts voters defeated a
2018 nurse staffing ratio ballot initiative
Massachusetts voters in 2018 defeated a nurses’ union ballot initiative
that would have put mandated ratios in all units in all hospitals at all times.
Prior to the November election, the Massachusetts Health Policy
Commission released an independent study on how mandated nurse-to-patient staffing ratios contained in the
ballot question would affect the Massachusetts health care system. The study
found that a mandate would cost the state up to $949 million annually and
increase the cost of health care overall, would most likely result in "no
systematic improvement in patient outcomes" and would adversely affect
community hospitals serving a high proportion of MassHealth and Medicare
The ballot initiative was defeated 70 percent to